Student Health Services

Sexual Health

Chlamydia

Infection

  • A sexually transmitted infection caused by bacterium through oral, vaginal or anal sex. chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility in women.

Risk Factors

  • - Any contact made with mucosal surfaces and oral or genital secretions
  • - Oral, vaginal or anal sex
  • - Alcohol and drug use
  • - Multiple sexual partners

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Chlamydia may show no signs or symptoms
  • - Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • - Burning sensation when urinating
  • - Pain and swelling in one or both testicles
  • - Rectal pain, discharge, and/or bleeding

Treatment

  • - One single dose antibiotic or 7-day antibiotic regimen
  • - Abstain from intercourse until 7 days after antibiotics have been started

Gonorrhea

Infection

  • A sexually transmitted infection caused by a bacterium. Gonorrhea can also spread to the blood or joints leading to a life-threatening condition if left untreated.

Risk Factors

  • - Any contact made with mucosal surfaces and oral or genital secretions
  • - Oral, vaginal or anal sex
  • - Alcohol and drug use
  • - Multiple sexual partners

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Painful or burning sensationwhen urinating
  • - White, yellow, or green discharge from the penis
  • - Painful or swollen testicles
  • - Increased vaginal discharge
  • - Vaginal bleeding between periods
  • - Anal discharge, itching, soreness or bleeding
  • - Painful bowel movements

Treatment

  • - Prescribed antibiotics
  • - Abstain from intercourse until antibiotics have been completed and no signs of infection are present

Hepatitis A, B & C

Infection

  • A viral infection that affects the liver. Hepatitis A is transmitted through fecal-oral contact which can occur during oral sex. Hepatitis B and C is transmitted through contact with infectious blood, semen, and other body fluids from having sex with an infected person or using contaminated needles.

Risk Factors

  • - Alcohol and drug use
  • - Sexual partner diagnosed with Hepatitis

Prevention

  • - Vaccination
  • - Abstinence
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Fatigue
  • - Nausea
  • - Poor appetite
  • - Muscle and joint pain
  • - Tenderness in liver area

Treatment

  • - Antiviral medications

Herpes

Infection

  • A sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 or type 2.

Risk Factors

  • - Any contact made with mucosal surfaces and oral or genital secretions
  • - Oral, vaginal or anal sex
  • - Alcohol and drug use
  • - Multiple sexual partners

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Blisters around the mouth, genitals or rectum

Treatment

  • - There is no cure but medications can prevent or shorten outbreaks

Syphilis

Infection

  • A bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. It begins with a painless sore, typically on the genitals, rectum or mouth.

Risk Factors

  • - Any contact made with mucosal surfaces and oral or genital secretions
  • - Oral, vaginal or anal sex
  • - Alcohol and drug use
  • - Multiple sexual partners

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Symptoms may overlap and not occur in the same order of stages
  • - Primary syphilis-small painless sore where the bacterial entered your body and appears about three weeks after exposure
  • - Secondary syphilis-after the chancre is healed, a painless rash appears on the trunk of body then covers entire body, muscle aches, fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes
  • - Latent syphilis-the disease moves into the latent (hidden) stage if left untreated
  • - Tertiary syphilis-the disease may damage the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints in this stage

Treatment

  • - Antibiotic in the early stages, if untreated and progresses to the latent stage, the disease is untreatable
  • - Supportive therapy for later symptoms will be prescribed

Trichomoniasis

Infection

  • A very common STI caused by infection with a protozoa parasite.

Risk Factors

  • - Multiple sexual partners
  • - History of STI's
  • - Previous infection of Trichomoniasis
  • - Alcohol and drug use

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Profuse and often foul-smelling vaginal discharge varying in color from white, gray, yellow or green
  • - Genital redness
  • - Burning
  • - Itching
  • - Pain with intercourse
  • - Painful urination

Treatment

  • - Prescribed antibiotics
  • - Abstain from intercourse until antibiotics have been completed and no signs of infection are present

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Infection

  • Occurs when a bacteria, such as Chlamydia or Gonorrhea move from a woman's vagina or cervix into reproductive organs

Risk Factors

  • - Sexually active women younger than 25 years
  • - Multiple sexual partners
  • - Unprotected sex
  • - IUD
  • - Douching regularly
  • - History of PID or other STI's

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Limiting sexual partners
  • - Refrain from douching
  • - Practicing good hygiene (wiping front to back)
  • - Regular testing

Symptoms

  • - Lower abdominal pain
  • - Fever
  • - Unusual vaginal discharge that may have a foul odor
  • - Painful intercourse
  • - Painful urination
  • - Irregular menstrual bleeding
  • - Pain in the right upper abdomen

Treatment

  • - One or more antibiotics
  • - Hospitalization may be required if symptoms are severe

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

Infection

  • A virus that causes warts. There are more than forty different strains of HPV that affect genital areas. Certain types can lead to cancer of the cervix.

Risk Factors

  • - Multiple sexual partners
  • - Sex partners who had multiple sexual partners
  • - Weakened immune systems and damaged skin
  • - Occurs more frequently in adolescents and young adults

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - HPV vaccine for both men and women
  • - Monogamous relationship
  • - Limiting sexual partners
  • - Latex condom use may prevent some but not all HPV strains

Symptoms

  • - Flat, warty-lesions or tiny stem-like protrusions may appear on vulva, near anus, on cervix or in vagina
  • - Men can have the lesions appear on penis, scrotum and anus
  • - Rarely cause pain

Treatment

  • - Medications to eliminate warts
  • - Surgical and other procedures to remove the warts such as freezing or laser

HIV/AIDS

Infection

  • A viral disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus

Risk Factors

  • - Multiple sexual partners
  • - Infected with other STI's
  • - Use of IV drugs
  • - Unprotected sex
  • - Uncircumcised men

Prevention

  • - Abstinence
  • - Latex condom use
  • - Clean needle for IV drug administration

Symptoms

  • - Fever
  • - Muscle soreness
  • - Rash
  • - Headache
  • - Diarrhea
  • - Sore throat
  • - Mouth/genital ulcers
  • - Swollen lymph nodes-mainly in the neck
  • - Joint pain
  • - Night sweats

Treatment

  • - Combination drug therapies will help manage the disease but there is no cure

Areas for STI testing in or near Marshall, MO

  1. Saline County Health Department
1825 S. Atchison Ave.
Marshall, MO 65340
(660) 886-3434
  2. Marshall Women's Care
2301 S. Highway 65
Marshall, MO 65340
(660) 886-6677
  3. Akeman Mc Burney Med Clinic
307 Main St.
Slater, MO 65349
(660) 529-2251
  4. Katy Trail Community Health
821 Westwood Dr.
Sedalia, MO 65301
(660) 851-6499
  5. Mid Missouri Family Health
4 N. Jefferson Ave.
Marshall, MO 65340
(660) 831-1175
  6. Missouri Valley Physicians
2303 S. Highway 65
Marshall, MO 65340
(660) 886-3364

Some locations such as Saline County Health Department offer free HIV and syphilis screenings. The Saline County Health Department also offers females one free STI screening yearly and discounted screening for males. Katy Trail Community Health offers affordable screening; fee is based on your personal income.

References
Mayo Health Clinic. (2012). N.p.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Research. Retrieved February 1, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health-information/

Center for Disease Control. (2013). N.p.: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved February 1, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov

Diiorio, C., Dudley, W., Lehr, S., & Soet, J. (2000). Correlates of safer sex communication among college students. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 32(3), 658-665.

Ford, J., & Browning, C. (2011). Neighborhood social disorganization and the acquisition of trichomoniasis among young adults in the United States. American Journal Of Public Health, 101(9), 1696-1703. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300213

FitzGerald, M., & Bedford, C. (1996). National standards for the management of gonorrhea. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 7(4), 298-300.

Lewis, L., Rosenthal, S., Succop, P., Stanberry, L., & Bernstein, D. (1999). College students' knowledge and perceptions of genital herpes. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 10(11), 703-708.

Sipkin, D., Gillam, A., & Grady, L. (2003). Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a California collegiate population. Journal of American College Health: J of ACH, 52(2), 65-71.

Mattei, P., Beachkofsky, T., Gilson, R., Wisco, O. (2012). Syphilis: a reemerging infection. American Family Physician. 56(5), 433-440.

Soper, D. (2010). Pelvic inflammatory disease. Obstetrics And Gynecology, 116(2 Pt 1), 419-428. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181e92c54

Wendel, K. A., & Workowski, K. A. (2007). Trichomoniasis: Challenges to Appropriate Management. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44S123-S129. doi:10.1086/511425

Greenblatt, R. J. (2005). Human papillomaviruses: Diseases, diagnosis, and a possible vaccine. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 27(18), 139-145. doi:10.1016/j.clinmicnews.2005.09.001

Marks, G., Crepaz, N., Senterfitt, G., Walton, J., Robert, J. (2005). Meta-Analysis of High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Persons Aware and Unaware they are infected with HIV in the United States: Implications for HIV Prevention Programs. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 39(4), 44-453.