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Information Technology Policies

I. Network/Computer Code of Ethics

II. MVC Lab Computer Policy

III. E-mail Policy

IV. WWW Policy

VI. Account Storage Policy

VII. Security and Filtering Policy

VIII. MVC Staff/Faculty Computer Policy

IX. MVC Computer Repair Policy

X. Network/Computer Contact Policy

Copyright and Fair Use Policy

I. Copy Machines

II. General Fair Use Guidelines

III. Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act Requirements

IV. General Guidelines on Public Works

V. Special Library Guidelines

VI. Computer Software

VII. Guidelines for Music

VIII. Performances and Displays in Face-to Face Teaching and Broadcasts

IX. Electronic Copyright Issues

X. Policy Violations

XI. Obtaining Permissions

XII. Campus Guide to Copyright Compliance

I. Network and Computer Code of Ethics

The ethical principles that apply to everyday community life also apply to computing and communications. Every member of Missouri Valley College has two basic rights: privacy and a fair share of resources. It is unethical for any other person to violate these rights.

A. Privacy

  1. 1. On shared computer systems and telephone lines, every user is assigned an ID. Nobody else should use another user's ID.
  2. 2. On shared computing systems, all user files and directories are considered to be private and confidential. Only files which a user has explicitly made public (e.g., by placing in a "public" directory) should be considered open for general access. Accessing and using files in another person's directory when not expressly permitted to do so by the owner is a violation of that person's privacy.
  3. 3. Messages sent to other users should always identify the sender.
  4. 4. Network traffic should be considered private.
  5. 5. Obscenities should not be sent by computer.
  6. 6. Records relating to the use of computing, telephone and information resources are confidential.

B. Resources

  1. 1. No one should deliberately attempt to degrade or disrupt system performance or to interfere with the work of others.
  2. 2. Loopholes in computer systems or knowledge of a special password should not be used to alter computer systems, obtain extra resources or take resources from another person.
  3. 3. Computing equipment owned by departments or individuals should be used only with their permission.
  4. 4. College resources are provided for College purposes. Any use of computing for commercial purposes or personal financial gain is strictly prohibited.
  5. 5. Computing, telephone and information resources are community resources. Theft, mutilation, and abuse of these resources violate the nature and spirit of community and intellectual inquiry.
  6. 6. Unauthorized devices, including but not limited to: wireless routers, hubs, switches, or access points that interfere with either the wired or wireless network are prohibited. If such a device is identified the owner will be asked to discontinue use of the device.

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II. MVC Lab Computer Policy

A. Missouri Valley College offers computer experiences in the form of an "open" lab, which allows students to access information beyond the physical setting of the campus. Word processing, email and Internet services are among the applications offered to provide for a broad base of learning experiences.

B. Use of the Missouri Valley Computer Labs is a privilege that may be revoked by Missouri Valley College at any time for abusive conduct or violation of the following policies and procedures:

  1. 1. Tampering with computer equipment; adding to, changing, deleting, or otherwise altering system files. (This includes desktop icons, programs, screen-savers, wallpaper, control panels, etc.)
  2. 2. Limit of 2 patrons per station. Viewing pay-per-view internet events is not permitted in the labs.
  3. 3. Maintain a quiet environment at all times: No loud talking, disruptive behavior, yelling or cell phone conversations in any lab. Headsets must be used for all sound applications.
  4. 4. Campus Lab computers shall not be used for:
    1. a. Commercial purposes
    2. b. X-rated sites or viewing pornographic material from e-mails or other sources.
    3. c. Sharing software (KaZaa, Morpheus, Gnutella, Napster, etc.)
    4. d. Network intrusion of any kind (hacking, packet sniffing, port scanning, etc.)
  1. 5. The computers in Murrell Library and the Murrell Library Commons shall not be used for:
    1. a. Commercial purposes
    2. b. X-rated sites or viewing pornographic material from e-mails or other sources.
    3. c. Sharing software (KaZaa, SongSpy, Gnutella, Napster, etc.)
    4. d. Network intrusion of any kind (hacking, packet sniffing, port scanning, etc.)
  1. 6. Sending X-rated sites or harassing and/or offensive e-mail to others is prohibited.
  2. 7. Users must log off when finished with the machine.
  3. 8. Sharing your username and password with anyone is strictly prohibited.
  4. 9. Patrons will be charged 5¢ for every page printed by a network printer.
  5. 10. Only current full/part time faculty/staff/students may have access to campus computers.
  6. 11. Tobacco, food, drink, and spurs are NOT permitted in the Computer Labs. Repeat offenders of this policy may receive a lab violation at the lab supervisor's discretion.
  7. 12. MVC lab staff will monitor lab computers electronically for compliance with lab policies.
  8. 13. Violation of lab policies may result in loss of computer use privileges on campus for the semester.

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III. E-mail Policy

A. It is the policy of Missouri Valley College to maintain e-mail access and systems for its community for the expressed purpose of communicating locally, nationally and internationally. It is the intent of the College that the e-mail system is to be used primarily for professional purposes associated with the business and academic pursuits related to the College.

B. All e-mail correspondence conducted using the College's resources are part of the College's e-mail system and property of the College. In instances of alleged violation of the College's policies or procedures as defined below, the Information Technology staff upon written authorization from the President of Missouri Valley College or his/her designee may view the contents of e-mail messages with the owner of the e-mail invited to be present.

C. E-mail should be avoided as a means of communicating confidential or sensitive material, inasmuch as confidentiality cannot be guaranteed on the Internet

D. Passwords should be changed periodically. We are not currently enforcing an expiration policy, but as more users get involved there is a greater chance of passwords falling into the wrong hands. It is a good policy to change the password on a routine basis.

E. The College will not release the contents of e-mail messages unless directed by a court of law.

F. Access to e-mail is a privilege and must be treated as such by all users. Any member of the College community who sends unauthorized messages under someone else's name, threatening messages, or messages not associated with the College's mission has engaged in unethical and unacceptable conduct.

G. The College characterizes as unethical and unacceptable and just cause for disciplinary or legal action, according to the Missouri Valley College Student Handbook and the policies related to each employee classification, any activity through which an individual:

  1. 1. Violates College or third party copyright or patent protection and authorizations, including license agreements and other contracts.
  2. 2. Interferes with the intended use of the operation of e-mail systems.
  3. 3. Seeks to gain or gains unauthorized access to e-mail resources.
  4. 4. Alters, dismantles, or disfigures messages so as to hide the originator or disguise the originator of the message.
  5. 5. Invades the privacy of the individuals enrolled in the email system.
  6. 6. Creates a situation that results in inefficient or wasteful use of the College's e-mail system.
  7. 7. Sends unwanted commercial advertisements or any other kind of spam. The practice of sending unsolicited commercial advertisements or solicitations via email is regulated by Sections 17511.1, 17538.4 and 17538.45 of the Business and Professions Code and Section 502 of the Penal Code, relating to advertising.
  8. 8. A backup of the Email server will be performed every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.

H. Upon resignation or termination of a staff or faculty member, a 30-day extension will go into effect. The employee that has left may request a redirection on their address. The email address will be frozen until a redirection is requested. Addresses will be kept operational for 30 days so that he/she may inform all her contacts to email elsewhere. The address will be terminated after the 30-day extension period. If a former employee wishes to keep their MOVAL email address, a request has to be sent to the president of Missouri Valley for approval.

I. Students will receive an email address before attending Missouri Valley College. This email address will be their Network ID.

J. Student addresses will be terminated within 6 months of their graduation. A student account will be terminated immediately if a student is dismissed.

K. Units within the College, such as a college or department, may initiate broadcast messages containing official College business to their own constituent groups without seeking the approval of the System Administrator, but should still observe these criteria.

L. Broadcast messages should originate from a departmental or unit account, e.g., library, rather than an individual or personal account.

M. Only registered students and full/part time faculty/staff may have a campus email account.

N. Missouri Valley College email should only be used for professional purposes associated with the business and academic pursuits related to the College.  The system should not be used for advertisement, solicitation, or other personal or private business.

O. When sending emails to groups please keep the size of the email as small as possible.  Large attachments can fill mailboxes and lead to missed communication. Repetitive emails are also discouraged, as they too fill mailboxes.

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IV. WWW Policy

A. The purpose of the Missouri Valley College World Wide Web Site is to further the mission of the college by providing electronic information service that will be of use to all constituencies. The web site will serve as a resource that contains general college information, information about departments and organizations, current news and schedules, links to and suggestions about Internet resources beyond the college, and information about the students, faculty, staff and alumni who make up the Missouri Valley community. The web site is to function as an educational resource and as a medium of electronic information distribution and communication.

B. The Webmaster maintains technical maintenance of Missouri Valley's Web site. Other departments may update their own section of the web site by the Webmaster's discretion.

C. Faculty will have their own web space to post material relating to their department. Each faculty member will receive a "fair" amount of web space to use for his or her discretion. "Fair" indicates that the space will not be abused and only used for that department's purpose. Creating and maintaining faculty web pages is the responsibility of each division. No faculty web site will be linked to the MOVAL web site without the approval of the CAO.

D. Content of all electronic pages must reflect the mission, interest and standards of the Missouri Valley community; may not contain any legally, ethically, or morally questionable material in the judgment of the institution; and should be worthy of a college publication. Creators of electronic pages must comply with all other college policies.

E. Before faculty web pages are published, they must be critiqued and approved by the webmaster and the Vice President of Academic Affairs. Any questionable material on web pages will not be approved.

F. MOVAL will only link web sites that have a mutual agreement of linkage. If a party wishes to be linked from MOVAL's web site without a mutual agreement of linkage, Missouri Valley College may charge that party an annual fee that is recommended by the Technology Board.

G. Design of a faculty or staff web page on www.moval.edu must be done with a template provided by the webmaster or follow these guidelines:

  • 1. Must use a provided MVC Logo somewhere at the top of the page.
  • 2. Must link back to www.moval.edu
  • 3. Must link back to beginning of department or personal biography

H. Faculty creating a personal web page must follow these basic guidelines in order to have their pages linked on the web site:

  • 1. Room number and building
  • 2. Phone number
  • 3. Office hours
  • 4. Current Syllabus

I. Faculty must also keep their own pages up-to-date. If a faculty's web page becomes outdated, the site will become unlinked by the webmaster's discretion until page is updated.

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VI. Account Storage Policy

A. Account storage is given to all Missouri Valley students and employees.

  1. 1. Account Server storage space should be used for temporary use.
  2. 2. Every student will receive 10MB of storage space.
  3. 3. Every Faculty & Staff will receive up to 200MB of storage space.
  4. 4. Account storage space should be used for personal and academic purposes only. It cannot be used for storing any type of illegal data or could be considered unlawful material by Missouri Valley College, State, or Federal statutes.
  5. 5. System Administration is not responsible for any loss of data to a particular person's account.
  6. 6. A backup of users' storage accounts will be performed every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 12 AM.
  7. 7. A student's account storage space will be terminated when he/she no longer attends Missouri Valley College.
  8. 8. Employee account storage space will be terminated when he/she is no longer employed by Missouri Valley College.
  9. 9. All account server storage spaces are considered private. If anyone accesses another account other than their own without consent of the account holder, will lose all network privileges or to the System Administration's discretion.

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VII. Security and Filtering Policy

Security Defined: For the purposes of this document, "Security" refers to the integrity of Missouri Valley College's owned and/or operated systems, servers and network infrastructure Information Systems Defined: Any network or computer resource on campus.

A. Security

  1. 1. An account and/or password assigned to an individual may not be used by others unless the intent of the account and/or password is for group access. The individual is responsible for the proper use of the account, including proper account and/or password protection. The individual should never allow anyone else to access an information system using his or her account and/or password. The individual will be held responsible for any misuse or damage caused by another individual using the first individual's account and/or password. Accounts and/or passwords will not be left in any form that would allow discovery by another. Individual's password should not be something that could be easily guessed and it should include at least one special character whenever possible. Individuals should change their password on a regular basis to maintain the security of their account.
  2. 2. The user of an information system should never leave an account logged on an unattended workstation unless the machine is in a secure area that would prevent someone else from gaining access, such as a private office. Machines in common work areas should be logged off when unattended. If an individual discovers that someone has made unauthorized use of his/her account, he/she should change their password immediately and inform to the Information System Administrator.
  3. 3. Access to information systems at Missouri Valley is a privilege, not a right, which may be revoked at any time at the College's discretion. Documenting computers and software for all campus computers.
  4. 4. Any kind of tampering with network and computer equipment (houses, dorms, labs) is strictly prohibited. If equipment is tampered with, it will be removed at the System Administration's discretion. If equipment is damaged, a fine will be issued to the residence or person associated with the offense.
  5. 5. On rare occasions, computing staff may access others' files, but only when strictly necessary for the maintenance of a system or in active pursuit of serious security or abuse incidents.
  6. 6. If a loophole is found in the security of any computer or telephone system, it should be reported to the system administrator and not used for personal gain or to disrupt the work of others.
  7. 7. The distribution of programs and databases is controlled by copyright laws, licensing agreements and trade secrets. These must be observed.
  8. 8. If an employee is perceived as doing or viewing questionable material during work hours, the employee is subject to being monitored by the department head with the permission of the Director of Operations.

B. Filtering

  1. 1. Missouri Valley College is required to have a filter on shared programs such as Napster, Kazaa, etc. Scheduled times of file sharing is up to the Information System Administrator's discretion.
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    VIII. MVC Staff/Faculty Computer Policy

    A. All Faculty/Staff machines are to be configured by the Systems Administrator only. Unless the user needs administrator rights for a certain authorized program, there should be no change in configuration of the computer. This includes: Computer name, network configurations, user restrictions other than for appearance purposes.

    B. All Faculty/Staff have "restricted access" to their computers. User needs to consult with their department heads or deans to approve additional software. NO software should be installed without the systems administrator's consent.

    C. Any computers added to the domain have to be done by systems administrator or authorized personnel.

    D. Any non-campus owned computers used for work purposes will not be supported by the college. Trouble-Tickets will not be opened on these computers.

    E. Movement or additions of computers on campus are to be authorized by the Network Department.

    F. Systems Administration is not responsible for any computer accessories that are not purchased by the College institution and does not support such items.

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    IX. MVC Computer Repair Policy

    A. All campus-owned computers' system information is documented for repair and history records.

    B. All campus-owned faculty and staff computers will have remote management software for troubleshooting and software repair.

    C. Monitoring of any computer system on campus using the remote management software without consent from the user is strictly prohibited.

    D. Before using the remote management software to troubleshoot or repair a system, the System Administrator, Computer Maintenance Department, or the user must be contacted.

    E. System Administration and Computer Maintenance are not responsible for any data, lost or existing, on a non-functional PC owned by Missouri Valley College.

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    X. Network/Computer/Web Contact Policy

    A. System Administration should receive all additions or subtractions in employment of faculty or staff from the Vice President.

    B. All student network information should be issued by the Registrar office.

    C. Any information that pertains to the MOVAL Web site should be issued to the Webmaster.

    D. Any questions or comments regarding network use/maintenance/changes/security should be issued to the Systems Administration Department.

    E. All questions regarding system maintenance should be issued to the Computer Maintenance Department.

    F. Policy usage or Copyright regarding web and/or network resource issues should be issued to the Systems Administration Department.

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    Copyright and Fair Use Policy

    Copyright is the ownership and control of the intellectual property in original works of authorship and is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (Title XVII, U.S. Code). This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. Public Law 94-553, section 6 generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to, and to authorize others to: reproduce in copies, prepare derivative works, distribute copies, perform publicly, and display publicly the work of authorship.

    It is illegal for anyone to violate any of the rights provided by the copyright law to the owner of copyright. One major limitation, however, is the doctrine of "fair use." In other instances, the limitation takes the form of a "compulsory license" under which certain limited uses of copyrighted works are permitted upon payment of specified royalties and other compliance's.

    File sharing, or P2P, and the act of sharing copyrighted material including music, MP3s, movies, games, software, etc., is illegal and against MVC policy.  This applies to students, faculty, and staff here at Missouri Valley College.  Network connections may not be used to violate copyright laws.

    The following guidelines provide general copyright information applicable to the Missouri Valley College community.

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    I. Copy Machines

    All public copy machines on campus must have a warning notice on or near each machine which states that the responsibility for copyright infringement rests with the user. All employees who assist in making copies must comply with the fair use guidelines. Copies of fair use guidelines have been made available near each MVC campus machine.

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    II. General Fair Use Guidelines

    Only the following copies may be made from copyrighted works:

    A. A single copy of one or more chapters from a book, one or more articles from a periodical title, one or more short stories, essays, short poems, charts, graphs, diagrams, drawings, cartoons, or pictures, provided the amount of copying does not exceed 10% of the entire volume.

    B. A single copy of an excerpt from a musical work, provided the excerpt is less than 10% of the entire work and is less than a performable unit, such as a section, movement or aria.

    C. A single copy of an entire work, provided a copy cannot be obtained at a fair price.

    Follow this link to see the Checklist for Fair Use:

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    III. Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization (TEACH) Act Requirements (this section is excerpted from an article by Judy Dahl, “Understanding the TEACH Act” in Online Classroom March 2004)

    The TEACH Act was signed into law on November 2, 2002 and it focuses on copyright regulation changes that affect primarily distance education (DE) instructors and technology. The changes in copyright law, brought about by the TEACH Act, address the use of audiovisual materials, storage of copyrighted materials on computer servers, digitalization of analog materials, and cached copies of copyrighted materials. The TEACH Act indicates that instructors may use free materials (those that are legally royalty-free) including those from Internet sites.

    The TEACH Act has three sets of specific Distance Education requirements, as outlined below:

    A. Academic institutions must:

    1. 1. be accredited;
    2. 2. have a copyright policy in place and inform faculty, staff, and students about the policy;
    3. 3. verify that copyrighted materials are only available to students enrolled in DE courses.

    B. Distance education technology must:

    1. 1. limit transmissions to enrolled students;
    2. 2. ensure that students do not download or share copies of copyrighted material;
    3. 3. discontinue transmissions after the class session is over.

    C. Instructors must:

    1. 1. acquire the copyrighted material legally (no video clips from television);
    2. 2. directly supervise all activities with copyrighted materials and use them only in class;
    3. 3. ensure that copyright notices are prominently displayed on all materials;
    4. 4. ensure that transmitted materials are for educational purposes, not for entertainment.

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    IV. General Guidelines on Public Works
    Free use of materials not protected by copyright is permitted for public works. The absence of a copyright notice is not significant in determining what is protected, since all published works are protected. The following guidelines may be used to determine what constitutes a public work:

    A. Works that lack originality (e.g., phone books)

    B. Works in the public domain (no longer protected by copyright)

    C. Free ware (must be expressly stated)

    D. U.S. Government works

    E. Facts

    F. Ideas, processes, methods, and systems not protected by patents

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    V. Special Library Guidelines
    Libraries are authorized to exercise special rights in addition to fair use, as described in Section 108 of the copyright law. These rights include copying for archiving lost, stolen, damaged, or deteriorating works, making copies for library patrons, and making copies for other libraries' patrons (Interlibrary Loan).

    A. Copies made by library staff for patrons generally

    1. 1. All general fair use requirements apply for patron copying.
    2. 2. Only single copies, and no multiple copies, will be made.
    3. 3. Copy requests exceeding these limitations must be refused.

    B. Copies made by library staff for reserve and for classroom use

    1. 1. All general fair use requirements apply for single or multiple copies.
    2. 2. Multiple copying may not exceed one copy per student, and may not be repeated with respect to the same item by the same instructor from term to term.
    3. 3. Copy requests exceeding these limitations must be refused.

    C. Copies made by library staff for purposes of collection maintenance
    A published work may be duplicated to replace a copy that is damaged, deteriorating, lost or stolen, provided that after a reasonable effort the Library has determined that an unused replacement cannot be obtained at a fair price.

    D. Interlibrary loan copying
    The library may annually acquire, through interlibrary loan, or lend, through interlibrary loan, up to five copies of articles published in anyone title within the last five years. If a request exceeds the five articles permitted, other options will be recommended.

    E. Digitizing works of others in electronic reserves

    F. Limit reserve materials to:

    1. 1. Single articles or chapters; several charts, graphs or illustrations; or other small parts of a work
    2. 2. Small part of materials required for a course
    3. 3. Copies of material which faculty or library already possess legally (by purchase, license, fair use, interlibrary loan, etc.)
    4. G. Include:

      1. 1. Copyright notice on the original
      2. 2. Appropriate citations and attributions to the source
      3. 3. A Section l08 ( f)( 1) notice indicating that making a copy may be subject to copyright law

      H. Copying with permission of the copyright owner
      The Library may not make copies in excess of the limits stated in the above sections without the permission of the copyright owner. It is the user's responsibility to obtain permission of the owner when such permission is needed. It is suggested that in requesting permission, the user state the purpose for the copying and the number of copies being requested. When the user presents written evidence of the owner's permission, the library may copy within the limits of the permission statement.

      I. Coursepacks
      The General Fair Use guidelines are applicable to coursepacks. Copyright notices, appropriate citations and attributions should be included. The faculty/staff member who compiles the coursepack materials shall be responsible for complying with these guidelines. Permission must be obtained for materials that will be repeatedly used by the same instructor for the same class. The Library staff will not copy coursepacks unless these guidelines are followed.

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      VI. Computer Software

      Only explicitly stated freeware, not shareware or other licensed software, is allowed to be used freely without a license. Appropriate licenses must be obtained for all other software use. The NET (No Electronic Theft) Act of 1997 provides criminal penalties for transferring copyrighted software over the Internet. The software user is responsible for reading and complying with all license agreements. Any other Missouri Valley College computer use policies shall also apply, including:

      A. Software provided through the College for use by faculty, staff, and students may be used on computing equipment only as specified in the specific software licenses.

      B. Licensed software may not be copied on College equipment except as specifically permitted by the software license.

      C. Faculty, staff, and students may not use unlicensed or unauthorized copies of software on College owned computers.

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      VII. Guidelines for Music

      Missouri Valley College maintains some general licenses for copyrighted music use with ASCAP, BMI, and SESAC for specific use areas (e.g., the radio station). Beyond those areas, use of music must be licensed or specific permission obtained. General guidelines for copying music are outlined below.

      A. Limit copying as follows:

      1. 1. Sheet music, entire works: a single copy
      2. 2. Sheet music, performable units (movements, sections, arias, etc.): only if out of print.
      3. 3. Student performances: record only for teacher or institutional evaluation, or student's portfolio
      4. 4. Sound recordings: one copy for classroom or reserve room use

      B. Include:

      1. 1. Copyright notice on the original
      2. 2. Appropriate citations and attributions to the source
      3. 3. A Section 108(t)(1) notice that making a copy may be subject to copyright law

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      VIII. Performances and Displays in Face-to Face Teaching and Broadcasts
      Educational institutions are authorized to publicly display and perform others' works in the course of face- to-face teaching activities, and to a limited degree, in broadcasts where there is a delayed transmission of faculty instruction (distance learning). These rights are described in Sections 110(1) and (2) of the copyright law.

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      IX. Electronic Copyright Issues
      The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 creates a liability limitation for Internet service providers for certain copyright infringements created on-line. In addition, the following guidelines for e-mail messages and other electronic transmissions are outlined:

      A. Original e-mail messages are protected by copyright
      B. Copyrighted material in e-mail messages must be appropriately cited and the guidelines for fair use apply
      C. Mounting copyrighted material on web pages is prohibited unless proof of permission in writing can be produced
      D. Hypertext links to copyrighted material (e.g., an article in the K.C. Star) require permission from the original copyright owner in writing

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      X. Policy Violations

      Violation of any provision of this policy by faculty, staff or students may result in but are not limited to:

      A. The requirement of the violator to provide restitution and/or to take immediate remedial action for any improper use of materials, software, or service
      B. Blocking access to or removal of infringing material from a web site hosted or owned by the College
      C. A limitation on a user's access to some or all College computer systems
      D. Disciplinary sanctions by the College

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      XI. Obtaining Permissions

      When permission is necessary, you must contact the copyright owner or the owner's authorized agent. Contact the author or publisher from information found on the work itself. The Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) can also simplify the process by acting as the agent on behalf of thousands of publishers and authors to grant permission. The Center may be contacted at www.copyright.com or (978) 750-8400. Additional information on copyright issues may be found at http://fairuse.stanford.edu.

      June 2000
      researched and composed by Pamela K. Reeder, Library Director

      Sources:
      Copyright Act of 1976, Pub. L. No.94-553, 90 Stat. 2541
      Copyright Law and the Library. Workshop presented by Ruth Dukelow, Michigan Library Consortium.
      Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Pub. L.No. 105-304,112 Stat. 2860 (1998).
      No Electronic Theft Act, Pub. L. No.105-147, 111 Stat. 2678 (1997).

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