Spring 2007 Name_____________________

Physical Science

Earthquakes

Objectives:

To use
replicas of the seismograms of the seismograph at

Please be very careful not to make marks of any type
on the seismograms!

Answer the questions on the first __two__ pages:

1. Describe primary (P) waves.

2. Describe secondary (s) waves.

3. Which of the above types of waves travels faster?
_________________

4. Read the paragraph below and tell how
electromagnetic induction is important in the operation of the seismograph.

The
Geology Department at Western Washington State College in

To aid
with the fixing of time, a signal is sent to the ammeter every minute, causing
it to be lower for two seconds. At the
beginning of each hour a four second signal is sent. The figure below shows how these signals appear
on the seismogram.

Figure 1

The "tick mark" is
caused by a two second signal which is sent at the beginning of each
minute. At the beginning of an hour a
four second signal is sent to the seismogram.
__You are to circle the "hour mark" on this figure.__

5. Read the entire experiment then sketch below S
and P waves from the same earthquakes as they will appear on the
seismogram. __On the figure you draw
clearly mark the S waves, the P waves and the distance you will use to
determine the time difference between the arrival of these two types of waves.__ During the experiment you will use this time
difference to determine the distance between the place where the earthquake
happened and the seismograph.

Carefully
place your seismogram on the table and put weights on the four corners. Please be very careful not to make marks of
any type on the seismograms!

6. What are you asked not to do to the copy of the
seismograms on your table?

0—

If you do
not understand any of the instructions or if you need assistance, do not
hesitate to ask the instructor.

The paper
you have consists of two seismograms, one taken immediately after the
other. The times that each seismogram
started is written at the top of the left hand corner.

7. Look at the time the first seismogram finished
and the time the second started. How
long did it take the attendant to change to paper on the recording
drum?_____________________

8. Look at figure 1 on the previous page of this
report. Use the method explain in this
figure to determine the following times and write 9:00, 9:30, 11:00 and 7:00 on
the paper triangles and place them on the seismogram at the marks indicating
these times.

9. Use the meter stick to measure the number of
millimeters in 30 minutes (one complete line across the page) and calculate the
number of minutes/mm. (Be sure to use
millimeters instead of centimeters.)

Distance in millimeters that corresponds to 30
minutes

mm=_______________

Divide this by 30 min to obtain mm/min=_________________

10. Find the tic mark on the
seismogram that corresponds to 7:30 pm, then count from there to determine the
time of start of the first earthquake (to nearest second). To do this you will need to measure the
distance between the last tic before the earthquake began and the start of the
quake. To calculate the seconds, divide
this distance by the conversion factor that you found in step 8, then multiply
by 60 to change to seconds.

Start of earthquake = __ :
: __

11. Place paper arrows with the numbers 1 through 12
on the seismograms at the beginning of any twelve earthquakes that can be
identified. (You should use both the top and bottom of your seismogram.) Leave
these in place! Call the instructor to
sign in the blank. ___________________

12. One of the most accurate ways to tell the
distance an earthquake is from the seismograph is by timing the difference in
the arrival of the S and P waves. The
first step in this process is to identify the S and P waves in each quake. This figure will help you do this.

The P waves arrive first (in
this case about 3 minutes before the S waves).
Often the vibrations have somewhat diminished before the P waves begin.

Write S and P on each of 4
paper triangles and place them by the S and P waves of 4 earthquakes. You will need to use the earthquakes in the
bottom seismogram where you can identify the S and P waves. If the distance you measure between the S and
P waves is not between 100 and 150 mm, you have not found S and P waves. Leave these triangles in place also.

13. Now
measure the difference between the arrival times of the P and S waves for 4 of
the waves. Then use the answer you obtained in question 8 to calculate the time
between the arrival of the S and P waves.

Earthquake No.
Measured distance for Time
difference for P and

S and P waves S waves

__________
________________
___________________

__________
________________
___________________

__________ ________________ ___________________

__________
________________
___________________

14. The instructor will give you a graph that will
enable you to use the time difference on the last question to determine
distance from the earthquake to

Write down the four distances you obtain from the
graph.

_______________, ______________, ______________,
______________

15. When several seismographic stations determine
the distance to the earthquakes the exact location of quakes can be determined.
Your instructor will give you a list of locations and you are to place a letter
on the map on the following page corresponding to the longitude and latitude of
each earthquake as given on the sheet.

16. After the
locations of the earthquakes are marked on the map, draw lines that you think
might represent the position of plate boundaries in this region. If you have placed your earthquakes properly
on the map, you will see that many of them tend to lie along certain
lines. These are the lines you should
sketch.

17. What are
these plates named and what do they have to do with earthquakes?